Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Concord Hymn

       by Ralph Waldo Emerson

William Jefferson Clinton
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Nature Links

Women of Influence to RWE and the 18th
Century World

Other Influences



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Thoreau Society

Founded in 1941


Biographical essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson
Atlantic Monthly, August 1862
— Emerson's Thoreau in
two parts:

Part 1

Part 2
was a major influence and mentor for Thoreau; it was Emerson who loaned
Henry a pond side property for the two year experiment that resulted in
. But as Thoreau grew, Emerson appears to not to have fully
appreciated what was happening. He writes that "I cannot help counting it a
fault in him that he had no ambition." — apparently missing completely the
enormity and originality of Thoreau's ambitions.



From the

tradition, the
Vinaya, Sutra, Abhidharma, and Jataka, originating around 500 B.C.



tradition, the New
Testament, originating in the first century A.D.


From the

tradition, the Vedas,
originating around 1000 B.C.


From the

tradition, the
Qur'an, originating around 700 A.D.


From the

tradition, the Hebrew
Bible, originating around 1200 B.


– From the

tradition, refers both
to a Chinese system of thought and to one of the four major
religions of China


From the

religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide
some 19 million.



From the

religion founded by

Baha Ullah
(born Mirza Huseyn
Ali Nuri) and promulgated by his eldest son, Abdul Baha
(1844€“1921). [Link]



From the

moral and religious system of China. Its origins go back to the



– From the Jina tradition, [i.e., the religion of
Jina], religious system of India practiced by about 5,000,000


– From the

tradition, ancient
native religion of Japan still practiced in a form modified by the
influence of Buddhism and Confucianism.
Image of the Salt Lake Temple.

– From the

sect of the Christian
tradition, the Book of Mormon, originating around 1830 A.D.

– From the ascetic and mystical movements within

, forms of devotion and
groups of penitents (zuhhad) in the formative period of

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“It is not a great matter how long men refuse to believe in the advent of peace; war is on its last legs; and a universal peace is as sure as is the prevalence of civilization over barbarism, of liberal government over feudal forms. The question for us is only How Soon.”
from War 1838
Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Empyrean Biography

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   Lawrence Buell


Emerson and Vendanta

by Swami Paramananda

“…to set forth the striking similarity between the writings of Emerson and the sacred teachings of the East.”

A new book by a New Author
A remarkably philosophical book,
written by an eleven year old girl

Father Luigi’s Chameleon
by Tara Isabella Burton

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5 out of 5 stars The Best Book I Have Read in Ages, 4/25/03

Reviewer: A reader from Amazon

When I found out that an eleven-year-old writer had published a philosophical book, I was skeptical, to say the least. At the urging of a friend, I reluctantly purchased a copy, thinking that I would skim it and put it aside. I was wrong. After the first few pages, I was hooked. I stayed up until 3 am reading it in one sitting. The book is amazing. Not only was the storyline intriguing and the characters believable, but the philosophy of the book really got me thinking about my own life. I would recommend this to everybody, and have already forced everybody I know to buy copies.

See book details

Although written by a child (11 years old upon completion), it is not a children’s book! Father Luigi’s Chameleon is the story of six friends, all living in Rome in the summer of 2002, who retreat to a small island off the coast of Naples in order to come to terms with their own personal demons that are preventing them from achieving happiness. At the root of this, watching over them, is Father Luigi’s pet chameleon, Monsieur Amore, who turns out to be more than just a simple reptile in this captivating and thought-provoking modern parable. 



Representative Men

You may want to read the prologue to


Plato or, the Philosopher
Representative Men (1850)

Plato Complet Works Plato Complete Works


Swedenborg or, the Mystic

Scribe of Heaven: Swedenborg’s Life, Work, and Impact

by by Stuart Shotwell (Editor)
Jonathan S. Rose (Editor)


or, the Skeptic

The Complete Essays
by Michel De Montaigne, M.A. Screech (Translator)


or, the Poet

The Complete Works of Shakespeare


or, the Man of the World

The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
by Robert Asprey


or, the Writer

Goethe the Poet and the Age : Revolution and Renunciation (1790-1803) (Goethe : The Poet and the Age) by Nicholas Boyle



Old Friends

Influences and Old Friends


The philosopher Socrates remains, as he was in his lifetime (469–399 B.C.E.),[1] an enigma, an inscrutable individual who, despite having written nothing, is considered one of the handful of philosophers who forever changed how philosophy itself was to be conceived. All our information about him is second-hand and most of it vigorously disputed, but his trial and death at the hands of the Athenian democracy is nevertheless the founding myth of the academic discipline of philosophy, and his influence has been felt far beyond philosophy itself, and in every age.
Plato (429-347 B.C.E.) is, by any reckoning, one of the most dazzling writers in the Western literary tradition and one of the most penetrating, wide-ranging, and influential authors in the history of philosophy. An Athenian citizen of high status, he displays in his works his absorption in the political events and intellectual movements of his time, but the questions he raises are so profound and the strategies he uses for tackling them so richly suggestive and provocative that educated readers of nearly every period have in some way been influenced by him, and in practically every age there have been philosophers who count themselves Platonists in some important respects.



Plotinus (204/5 — 270 C.E.), is generally regarded as the founder of Neoplatonism. He is one of the most influential philosophers in antiquity after Plato and Aristotle. The term ‘Neoplatonism’ is an invention of early 19th century European scholarship and indicates the penchant of historians for dividing ‘periods’ in history. In this case, the term was intended to indicate that Plotinus initiated a new phase in the development of the Platonic tradition. What this ‘newness’ amounted to, if anything, is controversial, largely because one’s assessment of it depends upon one’s assessment of what Platonism is. In fact, Plotinus (like all his successors) regarded himself simply as a Platonist, that is, as an expositor and defender of the philosophical position whose greatest exponent was Plato himself.
Marsilio Ficino (Latin name: Marsilius Ficinus; Figline Valdarno, October 19, 1433 -Careggi, October 1, 1499) was one of the most influential humanist philosophers of the early Italian Renaissance, an astrologer, a reviver of Neoplatonism who was in touch with every major academic thinker and writer of his day, and the first translator of Plato’s complete extant works into Latin. His Florentine Academy, an attempt to revive Plato’s school, had enormous influence on the direction and tenor of the Italian Renaissance and the development of European philosophy.

Marsilio Ficino

Marsilio Ficino

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, 1749–1832, German poet, dramatist, novelist, and scientist, b. Frankfurt. One of the great masters of world literature, his genius embraced most fields of human endeavor; his art and thought are epitomized in his great dramatic poem Faust. It is very difficult to overstate the importance of Goethe on the 19th century. In many respects, he was the originator of—or at least the first to cogently express—many ideas which would later become linguistics. Emerson regarded Goethe as a giant of his time.
Thomas Taylor (1758 – 1835), known as the English Platonist, was the first to translate into English the complete works of Plato and Aristotle. He also translated many of the later Platonists and also some of the remaining fragments of the earliest Greek writings, such as the Orphics, and the Pythagoreans. These translations, together with his original works, represent the most comprehensive survey of the philosophical thought of European antiquity.

Emerson learned his Plato from Taylor’s translation, published in London, in 1803 Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834)

Thomas Taylor


Poet and philosopher, Coleridge’s Aids to Reflection was important to the Idealist movement in America, with its definition of Reason and Understanding and emphasis upon intuitive insight. Emerson visited Coleridge in London in 1833, a year before the aged poet died.
William Wordsworth, (1770 – 1850) was a major English romantic poet who, with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped to launch the Romantic Age in English literature with their 1798 joint publication, Lyrical Ballads. Wordsworth’s masterpiece is generally considered to be The Prelude, an autobiographical poem of his early years that was revised and expanded a number of times. It was never published during his lifetime, and was only given the title after his death. Up until this time it was generally known as the poem “to Coleridge”. Wordsworth was England’s Poet Laureate from 1843 until his death in 1850.

William Wordsworth

Thomas Carlyle

Thomas Carlyle ( 1795- 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, and friend to Emerson, was hugely influential during the Victorian era. Coming from a strictly Calvinist family, Carlyle was expected by his parents to become a preacher. However, while at the University of Edinburgh, he lost his Christian faith; nevertheless, Calvinist values remained with him throughout his life. This combination of a religious temperament with loss of faith in traditional Christianity made Carlyle’s work appealing to many Victorians who were grappling with scientific and political changes that threatened the traditional social order.
When Ralph Waldo Emerson met Alcott in Boston in the late 1830’s, he was so impressed with his intellect and innovative ideas that he convinced him to move to Concord and join his circle of friends. There, Alcott turned to farming, lecturing, and writing to support his family, but his efforts were limited in their effectiveness. A few years later, with his English Transcendental friend, Charles Lane, Bronson founded the short-lived experimental Utopian community, Fruitlands, in Harvard, Massachusetts. Following the failure of the Fruitlands endeavor, Alcott sank briefly into the one interlude of despondency in his otherwise confidently optimistic life. Alcott’s ideas were instrumental in forming Emerson’s thought as recorded in the transcendental seminal work, Nature.

Amos Bronson Alcott

Margaret Fuller

Margaret Fuller (May 23, 1810-July 19, 1850) “possessed more influence on the thought of American women than any woman previous to her time.” So wrote Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in their 1881 History of Woman Suffrage. Author, editor, and teacher, Fuller contributed significantly to the American Renaissance in literature and to mid-nineteenth century reform movements. A brilliant and highly educated member of the Transcendentalist group, she challenged Ralph Waldo Emerson both intellectually and emotionally. She died tragically in a ship accident off the coast of Long Island, NY in a hurricane.
Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) was an American author, naturalist, transcendentalist, tax resister, and philosopher who is best known for Walden, a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings, and his essay, Civil Disobedience, an argument for individual resistance to civil government in moral opposition to an unjust state. Thoreau’s books, articles, essays, journals, and poetry total over 20 volumes. Among his lasting contributions were his writings on natural history and philosophy, where he anticipated the methods and findings of ecology and environmental history, two sources of modern day environmentalism. He was a close friend of Emerson and lived for a time in a cabin on Emerson’s land at Walden Pond.

Henry David Thoreau

Time Line




1803 – born May 25 in Boston to William Emerson and Ruth Haskins Emerson


1807 – (April 26), death of brother John Clarke


1811 – (May 12) father, William Emerson, dies


1812-17 – attends Boston Latin School


1817-21 – attends Harvard College, in a rather undistinguished manner


1820 – begins keeping journals which he would continue throughout virtually all his life. The first series are called “Wide World”, expressing his current thoughts on any and all topics.

1821-25 – teaches “school for young ladies”

1822 – publishes first article, in The Christian Disciple

1825 – admitted to middle class of Harvard Divinity School

1826 – preaches first sermon in Samuel Ripley’s pulpit

1827 – sails to South Carolina and St. Augustine, Florida seeking better health

1827-29 – serves as “supply” preacher

1828 – engaged to Ellen Tucker, age 17
– mental breakdown of brother Edward

1829 – ordained as junior minister of Second Church (Unitarian) in Boston
– (September 10) – marries Ellen Tucker

1831 – (February 8) – Ellen dies of tuberculosis

1832 – preaches “Last Supper” sermon, (October 28) resigns from Second Church
– (December 25) first trip to Italy, France, England and Scotland
– formulates many of his self-reliance, “Nature” ideas on trip

1833 – meets Coleridge, Wordsworth, has inspiring meeting with Carlyle
– interest in science rises, sees connections with spirituality and the unity of all
– returns (October 9), enthusiastic about his new embracement of Transcendentalism
– gives first lecture “The Uses of Natural History” at the Masonic Temple, Boston (November 5)

1833 – Frederic Hedge publishes article on Coleridge in The Christian Examiner which provides the first American recognition of the claims of Transcendentalism

1834 – settles in Concord. Boards with Ezra Ripley, his step-grandfather. “Nature” and next set of lectures written there.
– (October 1) – brother Edward dies unexpectedly, age 29. Edward once said, “the arrow of the angel had gone too deep”.
– Aunt Mary came to live with them for a year.
– Coming together of influences encourage Emerson’s conviction that what is beyond nature is revealed to us through nature, that the miraculous is revealed through the scientific and the natural, and that the inner life is revealed through the life of the senses. – Bronson Alcott establishes Temple School in Boston, a “remarkable” experiment in Transcendental education

1835 – lectures on “Biography” from January – March
– meets Bronson Alcott
– (September 14) – marries Lydia (Lydian) Jackson
– Margaret Fuller gives her “Conversations” to “interested persons”

1835-36 – Lecture Series on “English Literature” – November-January

1836 – (May 9) – brother Charles dies
– (September 9) “Nature” published
– meets Margaret Fuller
– helps form Transcendental Club in September
– (October 30) – son Waldo born
– Carlyle publishes “Sartor Resartus”

1837 – RWE gives “The American Scholar” address at Harvard to seniors, one of whom is Henry David Thoreau. Thoreau, responding to a suggestion of Emerson’s, begins to keep a journal. Leads to an extraordinary lifetime of journal-keeping.
– writes “The Concord Hymn” and delivers “The American Scholar,” the Phi Beta Kappa Society oration, at Harvard

1838 – (July 15) gives “Divinity School Address” at Harvard. Later the prominent Andrews Norton attacks Emerson’s views as “the latest form of infidelity”
– delivers “Literary Ethics” lecture at Dartmouth
– Jones Very makes first visit to Concord

1839 – (February 24) – daughter Ellen born
– Lecture series “The Present Age” from December to February, 1840
– Elizabeth Peabody opens a bookshop that becomes the gathering place for Transcendentalists.
– Jones Very publishes Essays and Poems

1840-44 – writes for The Dial with Margaret Fuller as editor First issue comes out July 1, 1840.

1841 – (March 20) “Essays” (First Series) – published
– includes “Self-Reliance”, “The Over-Soul” among others
– Thoreau moves into Emerson home (April 26) for two-year stay, becomes household handyman, and father figure when Emerson is on lecture tour
– (November 22) – daughter Edith born
Brook Farm, an experiment in communal living, established by George Ripley and colleagues. Emerson does not join.
– Theodore Parker attacks historical Christianity in his sermon “A Discourse of the Transient and Permanent in Christianity”

1842 – (January 27) – son Waldo dies
lectures in New York, meets Henry James
– assumes editorship of The Dial (July)
– visits Shaker community with Nathaniel Hawthorne (September)
William Ellery Channing dies

1843 – delivers lecture series “New England” in Baltimore, New York, Philadelphia, Newark
Bronson Alcott and friends establish Fruitlands
– Nathaniel Hawthorne reveals attitude toward Transcendentalism in his allegory “The Celestial Railroad”

1844 – Emerson’s “Essays: Second Series” published (October 19) . Sells well.
– (July 10) – son Edward born
– delivers address “Emancipation in the British West Indies”, first public statement against slavery

1845 – Close friend Margaret Fuller publishes Woman in the Nineteenth Century.
– Henry David Thoreau moves into self-built cabin on Walden Pond (on Emerson’s property) for 2 years and 2 months, in order to “live deliberately.”

1845-46 – Lecture series “Representative Men” (December – January)

1846 – Poems published (December 25)

1847-48 – second trip to England and France, British lecture tour. Visits Carlyle, Martineau, Wordsworth

1849 – “Nature; Addresses and Lectures published again (September)

1850 – “Representative Men” published
– first western (Cleveland & Cincinati) lecture tour (May – June)
– (July 19) – Margaret Fuller Ossoli drowns at sea off Long Island, New York on her return from Italy

1851 – speaks on the Fugitive Slave Law (May)
– Melville publishes Moby Dick

1852 – speaks on the Fugitive Slave Law (May)
– edits memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli
– western lecture tour (December – January 1853)
– Hawthorne publishes The Blithedale Romance based in part on Brook Farm

1853 – (November 16) – mother, Ruth Haskins Emerson, dies at 85, at Emerson’s home

1854 – lectures on poetry at Harvard Divinity School (April)
– meets Walt Whitman in New York City (December)
Walden by Thoreau is published. He also publishes Life Without Principle, a definition of his transcendental criticism of materialism.

1855 Whitman publishes Leaves of Grass Emerson believes Whitman to be a true American genius yet suggests to Whitman that some overtly sexual passages be omitted. Whitman declines.

1856 – “English Traits” published

1859 – (May 27) – brother Bulkeley dies

1860 – “The Conduct of Life” published

1861 – mobbed at Tremont Temple by pro-slavery agitators

1862 – meets Abraham Lincoln (February)
– (May 6) – Henry David Thoreau dies. Emerson gives funeral oration.

1863 – hails Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” with “Boston Hymn” (January)
– (October 3) – aunt Mary Moody Emerson dies

1865 – daughter Edith marries William Hathaway Forbes

1866 – given honorary doctorate at Harvard College

1867 – “May-Day and Other Pieces” published
– elected Harvard “Overseer”

1868 – (September 13) – brother William dies

1870 – “Society and Solitude” published (March)
– launches lecture series “The Natural History of the Intellect”
– Emerson’s memory noticeably begins to fail

1871 – trip to California, meets with famed naturalist John Muir who is enchanted with RWE. (April – May)
– gives second Harvard lecture series

1872 – (July 24) Emerson’s house (Bush) burns

1872-73 – third trip to Europe (October – May), including England (farewell visit to Carlyle) and Egypt…while house is repaired
– the town celebrates his return much to Emerson’s surprise

1874 – “Parnassus” published
– son Edward marries Annie Keyes

1875 – “Letters and Social Aims” published
– discontinues regular journal entries

1876 – lectures at University of Virginia

1881 – reads paper at Massachusetts Historical Society on the death of Carlyle (February)

1882 – Emerson dies in Concord on April 27, at age 78 and is buried in Sleepy Hollow.

1883-86 Emerson-Carlyle correspondence published

1884 – “Lectures and Biographical Sketches” published. “Miscellanies” published.

1892 – (November 13) Lydia Emerson dies at age 90

1893 – “Natural History of the Intellect” and “Other Papers” published

1909-1910 – “Journals’ edited by son Edward Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, published in ten volumes.

(Chronology taken from “Emerson: The Mind on Fire” by Richardson, “Ralph Waldo Emerson: Days of Encounter” by McAleer, and others volumes. Compiled by Watershed Online.)



Ralph Waldo Emerson Biography

Expanded Biographies

Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson
by Nathan Haskell Dole
Ralph Waldo Emerson:
An Estimation of His Character and Genius
by A. Bronson Alcott

Emerson, Ralph Waldo Born May 25, 1803, in Boston, Massachusetts, United States; died of complications resulting from pneumonia, April 27, 1882, in Concord, Massachusetts, United States; son of William (minister of a liberal Congregationalist [later Unitarian] parish) and Ruth (Haskins) Emerson; married Ellen Louisa Tucker, September 30, 1829 (died of tuberculosis, c. 1831); married Lydia Jackson, September 14, 1835; children: (second marriage) Waldo (died of scarlatina in 1842), Ellen, Edith, Edward.

A founder of the Transcendental movement and the founder of a distinctly American philosophy emphasizing optimism, individuality, and mysticism, Emerson was one of the most influential literary figures of the nineteenth century. Raised to be a minister in Puritan New England, Emerson sought to "create all things new" with a philosophy stressing the recognition of God Immanent, the presence of ongoing creation and revelation by a god apparent in all things and who exists within everyone. Also crucial to Emerson’s thought is the related Eastern concept of the essential unity of all thoughts, persons, and things in the divine whole. Traditional values of right and wrong, good and evil, appear in his work as necessary opposites, evidencing the effect of German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel’s system of dialectical metaphysics. Emerson’s works also emphasize individualism and each person’s quest to break free from the trappings of the illusory world (maya) in order to discover the godliness of the inner Self.


The son of a Unitarian minister, Emerson spent a sheltered childhood in Boston. During his youth the publications of the German Higher Critics and their progeny, as well as translations of Hindu and Buddhist poetry, were causing controversy in American academic circles. Emerson’s class at Harvard Divinity School was affected by these influences; consequently, upon assuming the pastorate of a Boston church in 1829, Emerson experienced many doubts concerning traditional Christian belief. He resigned from his pulpit in 1832, moved to nearby Concord, and then spent the next few years studying and traveling in Europe. After visiting a Paris botanical exhibition, Emerson resolved to be, as he termed it, a "naturalist." Upon returning to the United States, he began his career as a lecturer in the country’s new lyceum movement. During the late 1830s and early 1840s, Emerson published the works that present his thought at its most idealistic and optimistic. The lyrical essay Nature (1836), a pamphlet repudiating both materialism and conventional religion, declares nature the divine example for inspiration and the source of boundless possibilities for humanity’s fulfillment. The American Scholar, an address delivered before Harvard’s Phi Beta Kappa Society in 1837, attacks American dependence on European thought and urges the creation of a new literary heritage. Emerson’s Divinity School Address, delivered at Harvard in 1838, caused tremendous controversy for renouncing the tenets of historical Christianity and defining Transcendental philosophy in terms of the "impersoneity" of God. The doctrines formulated in these three works were later expanded and elaborated upon in his Essays (1841) and Essays: Second Series (1844), of which "Self-Reliance," "The Over-Soul," and "The Poet" are among the best-known.

Emerson became identified with the Transcendental movement in the 1840s, serving as its spokesperson, and as founder and guiding force of that group’s quarterly periodical, the Dial. Conceived as "a medium for the freest expression of thought on the questions which interest earnest minds in every community," the Dial was published for a small readership from 1840 to 1844, when it folded. Introducing the public to the writings of Amos Bronson Alcott, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau, a group who shared Emerson’s philosophy, the journal also published Emerson’s first poems. The merits of his poetry, collected in Poems (1847) and May-Day, and Other Pieces (1867), are subject to much critical debate. Prominent among them are "The Rhodora," "The Sphinx," "Brahma," "The Humble-Bee," and "Threnody." But the poem best known to the American public is one of his earliest works, the "Concord Hymn," which celebrates "the shot heard round the world" of the Battle of Concord, during the American Revolution.

Emerson’s poetry written from the era of the Dial onward, as well as his prose works dating from Essays: Second Series, chart a steady decline in the author’s idealism and give rise to an emerging recognition of mortal limitations. The Conduct of Life (1860) perhaps best expresses his humanistic acquiescence to the reality of worldly circumstances. Other important later works include Representative Men: Seven Lectures (1850), a series of essays on the men who most closely fit Emerson’s ideals–including Plato, Napoleon, and Shakespeare–and English Traits (1856), a work hailed by his friend Thomas Carlyle as an accurate portrait of English social manners in the midVictorian era. Society and Solitude (1870) marks the beginning of Emerson’s decline as an essayist. He spent his last years in Concord, writing little, but recognized throughout America as a philosopher of great stature.

Many American authors, including Herman Melville, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Thoreau are indebted to Emerson’s thought. While some critics find in him the eternal naif, a writer of pleasant-sounding but ultimately impractical essays, containing ideals that stale with the age of Emerson’s works, others note his energizing influence on inquisitive minds as evidence of his lasting greatness.


· Nature (essay), Munroe (Boston), 1836.
· (Editor and author of preface) Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, Munroe, 1836.
· An Oration, Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, August 31, 1837 (lecture), Munroe, 1837, also published as Man Thinking, 1844, also known as The American Scholar.
· An Address Delivered before the Senior Class in Divinity College, Cambridge, Sunday Evening, 15 July 1838 (lecture), Munroe, 1838, also called The Divinity School Address.
· Nature: An Essay, and Lectures on the Times, Clarke (London), 1844.
· Orations, Lectures, and Addresses, Clarke, 1844.
· Essays (first series), Munroe, 1841, enlarged edition, 1847.
· Essays: Second Series, Munroe, 1844.
· Poems, Munroe, 1847, enlarged and revised, Houghton, 1884, revised again, Houghton, 1904, also published in enlarged and revised edition as Selected Poems, 1876.
· Nature: Addresses and Lectures (lectures), Munroe, 1849, also published as Miscellanies: Embracing Nature, Addresses, and Lectures, Phillips, Sampson (Boston), 1856, also published as Miscellanies, Macmillan, 1884.
· Representative Men: Seven Lectures (lectures), Phillips, Sampson, 1850.
· (Written and edited with William Henry Channing and James Freeman Clarke) Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli, two volumes, Phillips, Sampson, 1852, issued in three volumes, Bentley (London), 1852.
· English Traits (travel essays), Phillips, Sampson, 1856.
· The Conduct of Life (essays), Ticknor and Fields (Boston), 1860.
· May-Day and Other Pieces (poetry and essays), Ticknor and Fields, 1867.
· Society and Solitude, Twelve Chapters (essays), Fields, Osgood (Boston), 1870.
· (Editor) Parnassus, Osgood, 1875.
· Letters and Social Aims, Osgood, 1876.
· Emerson’s Complete Works, twelve volumes, Houghton, 1883-1893.
· The Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and Ralph Waldo Emerson 1834-1872, two volumes, edited by Charles Eliot Norton, Osgood, 1883.
· Miscellanies, Houghton, 1884.
· Lectures and Biographical Sketches, Houghton, 1884.
· Natural History of Intellect and Other Papers (essays), Houghton, 1893.
· Two Unpublished Essays: The Character of Socrates; The Present State of Ethical Philosophy, Lamson, Wolffe, 1896.
· A Correspondence between John Sterling and Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited by Edward Waldo Emerson, Houghton, 1897.
· Letters from Ralph Waldo Emerson to a Friend, 1838-1853 [Samuel Gray Ward], edited by Charles Eliot Norton, Houghton, 1899.
· Correspondence between Ralph Waldo Emerson and Herman Grimm, edited by Frederick William Holls, Houghton, 1903.
· The Complete Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson (essays, lectures, travel essays, and poetry), twelve volumes, Houghton, 1903- 1904.
· The Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson (journals), ten volumes, edited by Edward Waldo Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, Houghton, 1909-1914.
· Records of a Lifelong Friendship, 1807-1882: Ralph Waldo Emerson and William Henry Furness, edited by Horace Howard Furness, Houghton, 1910.
· Uncollected Writings: Essays, Addresses, Poems, Reviews and Letters, Lamb, 1912.
· Emerson-Clough Letters, edited by Howard F. Lowry and Ralph Leslie Rusk, Rowfant Club (Cleveland), 1934.
· Young Emerson Speaks: Unpublished Discourses on Many Subjects, edited by Arthur Cushman McGiffert, Jr., Houghton, 1938.
· The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, six volumes, edited by Ralph Leslie Rusk, 1939.
· The Early Lectures of Ralph Waldo Emerson, volume one, edited by Stephen E. Whicher and Robert E. Spiller, Harvard University Press, 1959, volume two, edited by Whicher, Spiller, and Wallace E. Williams, Harvard University Press, 1964, volume three, edited by Spiller and Williams, Harvard University Press, 1972.
· The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, sixteen volumes, edited by William H. Gilman and others, Harvard University Press, 1960-1983.
· One First Love: The Letters of Ellen Louisa Tucker to Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited by Edith W. Gregg, Harvard University Press, 1962.
· The Correspondence of Emerson and Carlyle, edited by Joseph Slater, Columbia University Press, 1964.
· The Collected Works of Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited by Alfred R. Ferguson and others, Harvard University Press, 1971.
· The Poetry Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, edited by Ralph H. Orth and others, University of Missouri Press, 1986.

Credit and source: Camden County Free Library (Vorhees, NJ)



Additional Biographical sites about Ralph Waldo Emerson

Ralph Waldo Emerson

 Ralph Waldo Emerson


A View on Ralph Waldo Emerson

Addresses & Lectures




Volumes VII – XII

Vol VII – Society and Solitude  Chapter I  Society and Solitude 

 Chapter II  Civilization
 Chapter III  Art
 Chapter IV  Eloquence
 Chapter V  Domestic Life
 Chapter VI  Farming
 Chapter VII  Works and Days
 Chapter VIII  Books
 Chapter IX  Clubs
 Chapter X Courage
 Chapter XI Success
 Chapter XII  Old Age

Vol VIII – Letters and Social Aims

 Poetry and Imagination
 Social Aims
 The Comic
 Quotation and Originality
 Progress of Culture
 Persian Poetry

Vol IX – Poems

Vol X – Lectures and Biographical Sketches

 Perpetual Forces
 The Superlative
 The Sovereignty of Ethics
 The Preacher
 The Man of Letters
 The Scholar
 Life and Letters in New England
 Ezra Ripley, D. D.
 Chardon Street Convention
 Mary Moody Emerson
 Samuel Hoar
 George L. Stearns

Vol XI – Miscellanies

 The Lord’s Supper
 Historical Discourse at Concord
 Emancipation in the British West Indies
 The Fugitive Slave Law
 Dedication of the Soldiers’ Monument in Concord
 The Fortune of the Republic
 Letter to President Van Buren
 The Assault Upon Mr. Sumner
 Speech on Affairs in Kansas
 John Brown–Speech at Boston
 John Brown–Speech at Salem
 Theodore Parker
 American Civilization
 The Emancipation Proclamation
 Abraham Lincoln
 Harvard Commeroration Speech
 Editors’ Address
 Address to Kossuth
 Consecration of Sleepy Hollow Cemetary
 Robert Burns
 Walter Scott
 Speech at Banquet in Honor of Chinese Embassy
 Remarks at Organization of Free Religious Association
 Speech at Second Annual Meeting of Free Religious Association
 Address at Opening of Concord Free Public Library

Vol XII – Natural History of the Intellect

 Natural History of Intellect
 The celebration of Intellect
 Country Life
 Concord Walks
 Michael Angelo
 Art and Criticism

Volumes I – VI

Vol I – Nature,  Addresses & Lectures  Nature: Introduction

 Chapter I – Nature
 Chapter II – Commodity
 Chapter III – Beauty
 Chapter IV – Language
 Chapter V – Discipline
 Chapter VI – Idealism
 Chapter VII – Spirit
 Chapter VIII – Prospects

Addresses & Lectures

 The American Scholar
 Divinity School Address       Opening Sentence
 Literary Ethics 
 The Method of Nature
 Man the Reformer
 Introductory Lecture on the Times
 The Conservative
 The Transcendentalist
 The Young American

Vol II – Essays I


Vol III – Essays II

The Poet
Nominalist and Realist
New England Reformers

Vol IV – Representative Men


Vol V – English Traits

 Chapter I First Visit to England 
 Chapter II Voyage to England 
 Chapter III Land
 Chapter IV Race 
 Chapter V Ability
 Chapter VI Manners 
 Chapter VII Truth 
 Chapter VIII Character 
 Chapter IX Cockayne 
 Chapter X Wealth
 Chapter XI Aristocracy
 Chapter XII Universities
 Chapter XIII Religion
 Chapter XIV Literature
 Chapter XV The Times
 Chapter XVI Stonehenge
 Chapter XVII Personal
 Chapter XVIII Result
 Chapter XIX Speech at Manchester

Vol VI – Conduct of Life



Is Emerson Useful?

Emerson himself proposes at the beginning of “Considerations by the Way
that there is very little we can do to help each other. Why? As he
says, life has too many shifting moods and so much chance (or fate) in
daily existence, that one person’s experience seems to have little to
do with another’s. Is he right? Can we — or rather — can Emerson be a
useful guide in the Conduct of Life?